ALGAE DISCOLORATION- A type of roof discoloration caused by algae. Commonly called fungus or mildew.
ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials. A voluntary organization concerned with development of a consensus standards, testing procedures and specifications.
ASPHALT – A bituminous waterproofing agent applied to roofing materials during manufacture and used in various phases of roof construction.
ASPHALT PLASTIC ROOF CEMENT – An asphalt based cement used to bond roofing materials. Also known as flashing cement or bull. Should be non asbestos only.
BACK SURFACING- Silica or other mineral matter applied to the back side of shingles to keep them from sticking during manufacture and delivery.
BLISTERS- Bubbles that may appear on the surface of asphalt roofing after installation.
BUR-Built up roof system – A flat or low-sloped roof consisting of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets.
BUTT EDGE- The lower edge of the shingle tabs or first course of cement roof tiles.
CAULK – To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt cement to prevent leaks.
COATING – A layer of viscous asphalt applied to the base material into which granules or other surfacing is applied.
COLLAR- Pre-formed flange placed over a vent or pipe to seal the roof around the opening. Also called a vent sleeve of lead stack.
COURSE – A row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.
COVERAGE- Amount of weather protection provided by the roofing material.
Double Coverage – Application of asphalt roofing such that the lapped portion is at least 2 inches wider than 1/2 the exposed portion, resulting in two layers of roofing material over the deck.
Single Coverage – Asphalt roofing that provides one layer of roofing material over the deck.
Head Lap- Distance from the butt edge of overlapping roofing material to the lower edge of the second course of roofing material.
Lap – To cover the surface of the roofing material with another.
CRICKET – A tapered low slope diverter provided to prevent standing water at horizontal roof joints.
DECK- The surface, installed over the supporting framing members, to which the roof covering is applied.
DORMER- A framed window unit projecting through the sloping plane of a roof.
DRIP EDGE – A non-corrosive metal roof edge used along the eaves and rakes to allow water to drip clear of underlying construction.
EAVES – The horizontal, lower edge of a sloped roof.
EXPOSURE – That portion of the roofing exposed to the weather after installation. See COVERAGE
FASCIA: A flat board, band, or face located at the outer edge of the cornice.
FIBERGLASS PLY SHEET- An asphalt roll roofing material manufactured from glass fibers.
FIRE RATING: The Underwriters Laboratories (UL) system for classifying the fire-resistance of various materials. Roofing materials are rated Class A, B, or C, with Class A materials having the highest resistance to fire originating outside the structure.
FLASHING – Pieces of metal or roll roofing used to prevent seepage of water into a building round any intersection or projection in a roof such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining walls, dormers, and valleys. Galvanized metal flashing should be minimum 26-gauge. .
ICE DAM- Build-ups of ice and snow at the eaves, ice dams are formed when escaping attic heat melts snow at the ridge or peak of the roof. The melt water seeps down the roof under the snow and refreezes at the eaves, which are colder
INCLINE- incline is expressed as a ratio of the rise to the span. Also referred to as slope which is the ratio of the rise to the run.
MASONRY PRIMER- An asphalt-based primer used to prepare masonry surfaces for bonding with asphalt products.
MEMBRANE – An asphalt-saturated cloth used with asphalt cements for flashing and patching asphalt roofing.
PLY – the number of layers of roofing: i.e. one-ply, two ply.
RAFTER – The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall and/or overhang.
RAKE – The inclined edge of a sloped from peak to eave.
RIDGE – The uppermost, horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
RIDGE SHINGLES – Shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
ROLL ROOFING – Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form.
SELF ADHESIVE SHINGLES- Shingles containing factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive that bonds shingle courses together when exposed to the heat of the sun after application.
SELVAGE – That portion of roll roofing overlapped by the succeeding course.
SHADING- Slight differences in roofing material color that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations.
SHEATHING – Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material.
SLOPE: Measured by rise in inches for each 12 inches of horizontal run: A roof with a 4-in-12 slope rises 4 inches for every foot.
SMOOTH SURFACE ROOFING – Roll roofing that is covered with ground talc or mica instead of granules (coated).
SQUARE – A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet.
STARTER STRIP- Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provides protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.
STRIP SHINGLES- Standard asphalt shingles that are approximately three times as long as they are wide. Also referred to as 3-tab shingles
TAB – The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts.
TRUSS: The engineered components which have supplemented rafters in many newer houses.They are designed for specific applications and should not be cut or altered.
VALLEY- The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
UNDERLAYMENT – Asphalt saturated felt used beneath roofing to provide additional protection for the roof deck.
VAPOR RETARDED- Any material used to help prevent the passage of water vapor.
VENT- Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof, gable or soffit for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.
VENTILATION – The flow of air through the attic area. Proper ventilation is an essential factor in gaining the maximum service life out of the building materials used in the roof assembly.